The Lucchesi Renaissance Forts

With the advent of the modern era and progress in military arts and artillery, the old fortresses were no longer strong enough to repel enemies equipped with culverins, falconetti and other assorted cannonry of all calibres. The Duke of Este had already been strengthening and modernizing his old medieval forts. And so it was that the Republic of Lucca assigned to the architect Vincenzo Civitali the task of reorganizing the system of mountain fortifications. The work was arduous and not without problems, but the Lucchese engineer eventually managed to create a very efficient military system, based on a few well garrisoned stations, upgraded and modernized to the latest standards, in order to defend the Republic of Lucca from possible attacks from Florentines and the House of Este.
The trail starts from Ghivizzano and, after leading the visitor through the most important fortifications, ends at Pescaglia, one of the largest forts erected from scratch by the government of Lucca.

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